The British businessman William D’Arcy
The British businessman William D’Arcy obtained an important concession for oil exploration in Iran on May 28, 1901 After the end of the First World War the struggle for control of the countries of the Middle East and their promising oil resources intensified between the United States and the European powers. The Europeans were anxious to control these countries after the collapse of the Ottoman Empire.
The Growth of the Petroleum Industry in Abu Dhabi he petroleum industry in the UAE is an integral part of the oil industry in the Middle East. Like the other major oil-producing countries in the region the UAE is a member of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries(oPEC), and like the other Arab oil producers it is also a member of the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries(OAPEC). The UAE is affected in its policies, practices and activities by the objectives, polices and decisions of both of these organizations. It is a member of the Gulf Cooperation Council(GCC) which also includes Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar and Oman and works towards consolidating the relationships between member countries and coordinating their policies and positions in a variety of different fields(political, economic, social, cultural, etc.). Like the other players in the Middle East oil industry, the UAE has been affected, in terms of the rise and development of its national oil industry, by the same circumstances and events as the other producers of the Middle East and has undergone a similar evolution. It is therefore appropriate to begin with a brief description of the growth of the oil industry in the region to serve as an historical background to the study of the Abu Dhabi petroleum industry.
month of the Middle East Industry ntualeum opsna emecueimary agreements teached with concessionary agreements developed in the Middle East the rights and obligations of the concessionaires and governme The terms of the agreements varied from one and even from one agreement to another in the same general they had a number of common features. the d were granted for extremely long periods(the average despan four main concessions in Iran, Iraq, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia g2 years) without any provision for possible modification. covered very large areas of the host country(sometimes the territory of the country concerned without specific relinquishment: before 1950 they provided for the paymem hont government of an extremely low royalty made at a per ton in the Abu Dhabi agreements, three rupees(75 c ton(about 10 cents per barrel; and while the concessi company was granted exorbitant privileges and great manager freedom in the development of the concession area, the host was excluded from any direct participation in the inte decision making process of the operating companies. Finally, under the anneessionary system, the oil industry had been operated as a whole foreign economic enclave, almost completely isolated from seators of the national economy. Tie growing demand for petroleum in industrialized countres ombined with their lack of oil deposits, stimulated petrolom mporaine inanumber of distant regions. Several attempts were ma Before die First World War to obtain rights for the use of oil.
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Study of the petroleum experience of the emirate of Abu Dhabi
Article 1206 of the UAE Civil Transactions Code states: “Minerals found under the ground shall be the property of the State even if they are found in a privately owned land. The UAE has neither a unified federal oil policy nor any federal petroleum legislation under which the conditions governing the granting of exploration and development permits are fixed in advance Each emirate handles its own petroleum affairs. While the UAE does have a Federal Petroleum Ministry, its present role is confined to representing the country in the international petroleum community and in specialized international and regional organizations such as OPEC, OAPEC and the Arab Organization of Mincral Resources.
Study of the petroleum experience of the emirate of Abu Dhabi
This article provides a study of the petroleum experience of the emirate of Abu Dhabi, part of the United Arab Emirates(UAE). It aims to shed light on certain aspects of this experience, including the underlying principles of Abu Dhabi’s oil policy and the different achievements of the emirate’s oil industry. The study of the legal aspects of the experience and the legal framework for the development of petroleum resources in the emirate will constitute an important part of the work. The emirate of Abu Dhabi is one of seven emirates that constitute the United Arab Emirates(UAE) Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjah, Ras Al Khaimah, Ajman, Fujairah and Umm Al Qawain. The UAE is a large oil producer in a major producing a the Arabian Gulf and a member of both the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries(OPEC) and the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries(OAPEC). Abu Dhabi has been a member of OAPEC since 1970, and joined OPEC in 1967 membership of OPEC was taken over by the UAE federation in 1974 The UAE possess huge reserves of oil and gas and enjoys a comfortable production capacity. oil, in effect, is the comer stone of the UAE economy. Oil was first discovered in Abu Dhabi in 1958 and production began in 1962 from offshore areas and then in 1963 from onshore fields. The oil sector developed very quickly and Abu Dhabi soon became a major world oil exporter. In Dubai, oil in commercial qualities was discovered in 1966 and the first cargo was shipped in 1969. Oil was subsequently discovered in Sharjah in 1972 and exports commenced in 1974. Ras Al Khaimah was the fourth emirate to discover and exploit oil in 1983.
of the seven emirates comprising the UAE, Abu Dhabi possesses Article the principal producer. reserves of the UAE are presently estimated at around found billion barrels, Abu Dhabi alone accounts for 92.2 billion barrels of are fou crude oil reserves, Despite periodic discoveries in the smaller i The abi continue to dominate the oil scene in the UAE terms petrole of production d reserves. The emirate is continuing to make new finds, is an and has the ab discovering new structures in existing fields granti Each e in relatively high levels of long-term production at its old fiel have a ly ng improved recovery techniques. At the 2004 rate of production repres of 955,000 barrels per day(bpd), Abu Dhabi oil reserves give in spe OAPE emirate a reserve production ratio of 129 years. In 2005, Abu Dhabi stepped up its crude oil output to 2.24 million barrels per day(mbpd), these f not counting some 250,000 bpd of condensate legal Sin The gas reserves of Abu Dhabi are presently estimated at 1985 bigges trillion cubic feet(te).
In 2005, Abu Dhabi’s natural gas production longe was 6.8 billion cubic feet/day most The UAE has extensive experience in terms of its relationships with frame oil companies the first oil concession was granted in Abu experi Dhabi in 1939. in aspects of this long experience; some of the taken in the past; certain features of the applicable legal indust decisions framework, and the history of Abu Dhabi’s relationship with foreign the let il companies are relevant to this study, and have therefore been emira included n the UAE, like the other countries of the Middle East, and h all natural Abu L resources, including underground petroleum resources, belong to state, Article oil i 23 of the UAE Constitution stipulates: “The natural gover resources and wealth in each emirate shall be considered to be(ADN public property of that emirate. The public authority shall their responsible for the protection and proper exploitation resources for of such natural e henetit of the national economy.
the United Arab Emirates(UAE) is one of the world’s major oil-producing countries
the United Arab Emirates(UAE) is one of the world’s major oil-producing countries. A member of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries(OPEC) and of the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries(OAPEC), the UAE has estimated recoverable oil reserves of around 97 billion barrels, of which the emirate of Abu Dhabi alone accounts for around 92 billion barrels In the early years of hydrocarbon exploration and production, Abu Dhabi’s oil industry was dominated by major international oil companies operating under concession agreements with the emirate, as was the case elsewhere in the Middle East region.